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HOW TO CHOOSE A CNC SPINDLE MOTOR?

DATE: 2022.09.13     VIEW: 6557
The spindle motor has become popular at a very significant point in the field of precision tasks. The spindle is a new technology offering lightweight and low vibration. It is the most critical part of the CNC machine tool and largely determines the efficiency and accuracy of the machinery. Due to the diversification of products of the spindle, choosing the right one is very important. Minute variations as a result of human errors are next to impossible. For this level of manufacturing, computer numerical control, or CNC, is an automation process that uses a coded program to perform high-precision tasks in processes such as drilling, grinding, and jets and torches. 
 
The electric spindle has two primary features: constant torque and constant power. The torque is less expensive and comes in two variants- air-cooled spindle motor and water-cooled spindle motor. It operates along three aces: the horizontal x and vertical y -and the third z-axis, which introduces the third dimension. The key to CNC technology is the spindle, which moves along the z-axis to punch, drill or cut material as per movement along the x and y axes, and bring it into place. The spindle requires unparalleled precision provided by a particular type of electromagnetic motor. There are multiple motors for varying jobs, and this article will explore how to choose a CNC spindle motor.
 
STEPPER MOTORS
Older versions of CNC motors use stepper motors, either built around permanent magnets drawn to their housings or magnetic housings to attract the rotor. In this latter model, the spindle can achieve higher speeds than it would with a permanent magnet in the rotor. Stepper motors are less popular and less powerful of the two motors most common to spindles. Stepper motors are sufficient for basic CNC applications, which implies that tasks requiring more power or precision call for another approach.
 
SERVO MOTORS
Servo motors are a more sophisticated version of the stepper motor. Though they are electromagnetic, their motors have lower pole counts than steppers. The critical difference between stepper and servo motors is the communication loop. Stepper motors operate on an open communication loop- they can receive signals only from voltage. Servo motors, on the contrary, use closed-loop communication, which means they send and receive signals from a controller. Servo motors work in collaboration with gearboxes so that high speeds are maintained at high torques, and when changes occur, servo motors can make up for these shifts. With incredible speed and acceleration, servo motors are the spindle motor of choice for most CNC applications. However, the disadvantage is that there are a greater number of moving parts in a servo than in a stepper motor, and that makes it more prone to failure.
 
SPINDLE SPEED
Beyond the difference explained above, spindle motors come at varying maximum speeds. Just like in a car's engine, spindle speed is measured in revolutions per minute (RPM). The material being cut or drilled and the precision required in the job determines the spindle motor's necessary speed. The smaller the surface, the higher the spindle speed should be.
 
SPINDLE TORQUE
Spindle speed is important but is insignificant without torque. Torque is defined as the rotational force that forms the basic principle behind the operation of spindle motors. It is determined by force, radius and angle, and as the spindle speed increases, the torque naturally declines. Larger motors may produce higher torque. Low torque is sufficient for cutting wood, but higher torque is required for cutting steel.
 
SPINDLE MAINTENANCE
The spindle motors can fail due to CNC machinery's high speeds and torque. Regular maintenance of a spindle motor is necessary to keep it functional and avoid failure due to overheating. Additionally, overloading should be completely avoided.
 
MATERIAL TO BE CUT
Different materials have different characteristics and require a different approach to cutting them. The materials intended to be cut will determine the type of spindle one should use. 
 
SPINDLE BUILT
Any spindle which does not have a metal component should be avoided. This is because they cannot handle the stress and could fail. 
 
SPINDLE SIZE
The right spindle size will determine the size of the tool to be used. The shaft diameter and shank diameter can vary and should be the correct size.
 
WHD Spindle Motor is an international organization working the world over in many industries to create the most effective spindle motors. With clients across Europe and America, we are your best choice in purchasing Spindle motors of varying kinds. For more, please visit our website www.whdmotor.com.  
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